# WORKDAY function

Returns a number that represents a date that is the indicated number of working days before or after a date (the starting date). Working days exclude weekends and any dates identified as holidays. Use WORKDAY to exclude weekends or holidays when you calculate invoice due dates, expected delivery times, or the number of days of work performed.

Important

This function was replaced with one or more new functions that may provide improved accuracy and whose names better reflect their usage. This function is still available for compatibility with earlier versions of Excel. However, if backward compatibility is not required, you should consider using the new functions from now on, because they more accurately describe their functionality.

## Syntax

WORKDAY(start_date,days,holidays)

Important

Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or as results of other formulas or functions. For example, use =DATE(2008,5,23) for the 23rd day of May, 2008. Problems might occur if dates are entered as text.

Argument

Description

Remarks

start_date

A date that represents the first, or starting, date of the period.

• If a valid date is not entered for this argument, this function returns the #VALUE! error value.

days

The number of nonweekend and nonholiday days before or after start_date. A positive value for days yields a future date; a negative value yields a past date.

• If start_date plus days yields an invalid date, WORKDAY returns the #NUM! error value.

• If a valid date is not entered for this argument, this function returns the #VALUE! error value.

• If this argument contains a decimal value, this function ignores the numbers to the right side of the decimal point.

holidays

An optional list of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar, such as state and federal holidays and floating holidays. The list can be either a range of cells that contain the dates or an array constantA set of data used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments arranged in rows and columns. Excel has two kinds of arrays: array ranges and array constants. An array range is a rectangular area of cells that share a common formula; an array constant is a specially arranged group of constants that's used as an argument in a formula. of the serial numbers that represent the dates.

• If a valid date is not entered for this argument, this function returns the #VALUE! error value.

## General remarks

To view the serial number as a date, select the cell, and then on the View menu, click Formatting Palette. Under Number, on the Format pop-up menu, click Date.

## Example

To make the following example easier to understand, you can copy the data to a blank sheet and then enter the function underneath the data. Do not select the row or column headings (1, 2, 3... A, B, C...) when you copy the sample data to a blank sheet.

 Note  To convert the range of cells used for holidays in the last formula of the example into an array constant, select A4:A6 and then press ⌘+=.
 1 2 3 4 5 6
 A B Date Description 10/01/2008 Start date 151 Days to completion 11/26/2008 Holiday 12/4/2008 Holiday 1/21/2009 Holiday Formula Description (Result) =WORKDAY(A2,A3) Date 151 workdays from the start date (4/30/2009) =WORKDAY(A2,A3,A4:A6) Date 151 workdays from the start date, excluding holidays (5/5/2009)
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